- Kardashev scale : method of measuring civilization’s level of technological advancement, mostly based on the capability of energy production. 
- Type1: planetary, control weather, natural disaster, etc. Make the most out of planetary natural resources. Most energy efficient.
- Type2: Stellar, control influence of Sun to earth. Control influence of any other solar system on earth. Make the most out of solar system.
- Type3: Galactic, control influence of galactic environment. Colonize planet in the galaxy
- Current earth civilization : Type 0.72 (use dead plant, oil, coal, as energy source)
- Method to reach Type 1 (Type 1 civilization needs 5kg of energy per second. E=MC^2, similar to one nuclear bomb per second)
- Fusion power: Fusing 10^3kg of hydrogen into helium per second. 1km^3 water has 10^11 kg of hydrogen. Earth has 10^9 km^3 of water. Possible to produce energy for 3000 million years!
- ~10k years needed to type 2 civilization, so the energy resource for type 1 using water in earth is sufficient.
- Solar energy : may need to use space based power satellites.
- Anti-matter : need technology to produce or collect anti-matter in large quantities.
- Transition from type 0 to type 1 risks self destruction
- No longer a room for further expansion on the civilization’s home planet. (Malthusian catastrophe, Bartlett’s law)
- Excessive use of energy and continuous “exponential” growth of population could make the planet unsuitable to live.
- Sustainable growth is “oxymoron”
- Forces advancement
- Newton : Gravitational force à industrial revolution
- Maxwell: Electromagnetic force à electronic revolution, telecommunication, internet, etc
- Einstein: Nuclear forces à nuclear power, energy, etc
- String Theory : all forces (super forces) à mind of god.