ebeam lithograpy



  • ebeam litho technology (EbDW Ebeam Direct Write)
    • report & paper
    • Key issue
      • Throughput
        • serial nature of e-beam –> orders of magniture slower than optical litho
      • Solution to Throughput issue
        • VSB (variable shaped beam)
          • fractures the complex shapes of design features into multiple rectangles,
        • CP (character Projection)
          • use stencils to project a larger character in one shot
          • entire 65 and 45nm std cells can fit within projection area
          • image
  • ebeam general technology and business trend
    • production tools are still a minimum of five years away
    • tools will be available no sooner than 2015
    • initially apply their technology to mask-writing tools
    • potentially reduce or remove the need for photomasks
      • cost of a mask set doubles at each new technology node
      • rising cost of masks as the chief culprit behind an ominous trend: declining ASIC starts
      • for some chips that do not sell huge volumes, a full mask set can be cost prohibitive
      • lower-volume designs to do critical layers using direct-write while continuing to purchase photomasks for the non-critical layers,
    • unacceptably slow wafer writing times is an issue of commercial production
    • overlay control and throughput remain well short of what is needed
    • target production at the 16-nm node
    • companies
      • Mapper Lithography (Delft, The Netherlands),
        • one of its tools, located at Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co. Ltd. (TSMC)’s Fab 12 in Hsinchu
        • one to French technology research organization CEA-Leti
        • printing features directly on Si, not mask
        • exposure of 20-nm SRAM cells
        • throughput for its tools of 10 wafers per hour and then cluster 10 tools together in a system that can write 100 wafers per hour
          • 10 wafer/hour/tool X 10 tool = 100 wafers/hour
        • 110 electron beams that can be individually switched on and off by means of an optical blanker array
      • MS Nanofabrication AG
      • Direct2Silicon (D2S)
      • eBeam Initiative — consortium of more than 25 companies headed by Direct2Silicon Inc
    • image
      • KLA-Tencor Corp
      • Micronic Laser Systems AB
      • Vistec Electron Beam Lithography Group
      • Tokyo Electronic Ltd
      • IMS
        • two proof-of-concept tools last year for mask writing using ebeam
        • Projection Mask-Less Lithography (PLM2) technology
        • eMET technology targets the 16-nm node and below.
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